. TheRomanswere the first builders in thehistory of architectureto realize the potential ofdomesfor the creation of large and well-defined interior spaces.Domes were introduced in a number of Roman building types such astemplesthermaepalacesmausoleaand later alsochurches. Half-domes also became a favoured architectural element and were adopted asapsesin.
Monumental domes began to appear in the 1st century BC inRomeand theprovincesaround theMediterranean Sea. Along withvaults, they gradually replaced the traditionalpost and lintel constructionwhich makes use of thecolumnandarchitrave. The construction of domes was greatly facilitated by the invention ofconcrete, a process which has been termed theRoman Architectural Revolution.Their enormous dimensions remained unsurpassed until the introduction of structuralsteelframes in the late 19th century (seeList of the worlds largest domes).
All diameters are clear span in m; for polygonal domes applies to the in-circle diameter. Main source is Jrgen Raschs study of Roman domes (1985).
Largest dome of the world until 1881; largest unreinforced solid concrete dome in the world till present;
archetype of Western dome construction to this day
Later medieval structure with Roman building fabric largestoccidentaldome betweenHagia SophiaandFlorence Cathedral
Temple of Minerva Medica (nymphaeum) !
OctagonConcretewith inner brick covering~4.20
Tiled roof directly resting on dome shell~ 0.70
Via Prenestina~3rd c.Octagon~-~ 1.35
Via Appia~3rd c.Rotundawith six niches~-~ 1.60
nearTarragona~4th c.Brick and stone~ 0.40
Piazza dOro (vestibule)Tivoli~2nd c.Umbrella dome~ 1,90
Annex buildingBaiae~2nd c.Flat umbrella dome,
Annex buildingBaiae~2nd c.Umbrella dome above circular ground plan~0.59
History of Roman and Byzantine domes
Rasch, Jrgen (1985), Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur. Entwicklung, Formgebung, Konstruktion,
Bishop, John (1977), The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny (Review),
Heinle, Erwin; Schlaich, Jörg (1996),
Kuppeln aller Zeiten, aller Kulturen
Römische Thermen. Badewesen und Badeluxus im römischen Reich
, Mnchen, pp.6064,ISBN3-7774-3540-6
Lechtman, Heather; Hobbs, Linn (1986), Roman Concrete and the Roman Architectural Revolution. Ceramics and Civilization, in Kingery, W. D.,
High Technology Ceramics: Past, Present, Future
Mark, Robert; Hutchinson, Paul (1986), On the Structure of the Roman Pantheon,
dtv-Atlas Baukunst I. Allgemeiner Teil: Baugeschichte von Mesopotamien bis Byzanz
(14th ed.), Mnchen,ISBN3-423-03020-8
Kölns romanische Kirchen. Architektur, Ausstattung, Geschichte
(5th ed.), Köln,ISBN3-7701-1360-8
Traianus Technical investigation of Roman public works
The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete
Architectural records of the Greco-Roman World
Lists of ancient Roman buildings and structures
This page was last edited on 16 March 2018, at 19:31.