Spanish Colonial Revival architecture
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California TowerBalboa Park (San Diego), designed byBertram Goodhuein Spanish Colonial Revival style for thePanamaCalifornia Exposition
TheSpanish Colonial Revival Styleis anarchitectural stylistic movementarising in the early 20th century based on theSpanish Colonial architectureof theSpanish colonization of the Americas.
ThePanama-California Expositionof 1915 inSan Diego, highlighting the work of architectBertram Goodhue, is credited with giving the style national exposure. Embraced principally inCaliforniaandFlorida, the Spanish Colonial Revival movement enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1915 and 1931.
Spanish Colonial Revival style residence
Lighthouse ofLa Serena, Chile, was built in 1950 as part ofGabriel Gonzlez VidelaPlan Serenathat introduced a neocolonial theme to the city centre
The antecedents of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style can be traced to theMediterranean Revival architecturalstyle. ForSt. Augustine, Florida, three northeastern architects,andThomas HastingsofCarrre and HastingsandBostonianFranklin W. Smith, designed grand, elaborately detailed hotels in the Mediterranean Revival andSpanish Revivalstyles in the 1880s. With the advent of thePonce de Leon Hotel(Carrre and Hastings, 1882), theAlcazar Hotel(Carrre and Hastings, 1887) and theCasa Monica Hotel(later Hotel Cordova) (Franklin W. Smith, 1888) thousands of winter visitors to the Sunshine State began to experience the charm and romance of Spanish influenced architecture. These three hotels were influenced not only by the centuries-old buildings remaining from theSpanish rule in St. Augustinebut also byThe Old City House, constructed in 1873 and still standing, an excellent example of early Spanish Colonial Revival architecture.
The possibilities of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style were brought to the attention of architects attending late 19th and early 20th centuries internationalexpositions. For example, CaliforniasMission Revival stylePavilion in whitestuccoat theWorlds Columbian Expositionof 1893 inChicago,and theMission Inn, along with theElectric Towerof thePan-American ExpositioninBuffaloin 1900introduced the potential of Spanish Colonial Revival. They also integratedporticoespedimentsandcolonnadesinfluenced byBeaux Artsclassicism as well.
By the early years of the 1910s, architects inFloridahad begun to work in a Spanish Colonial Revival style.Frederick H. Trimbles Farmers Bank inVero Beach, completed in 1914, is a fully mature early example of the style. The city ofSt. Cloud, Florida, espoused the style both for homes and commercial structures and has a fine collection of subtlestuccobuildings reminiscent of colonial Mexico. Many of these were designed by architectural partnersIda Annah RyanandIsabel Roberts.
The major location of design and construction in the Spanish Colonial Revival style wasCalifornia, especially in the coastal cities. In 1915 the, with architectsBertram GoodhueandCarleton WinslowSr., popularized the style in the state and nation. It is best exemplified in theCalifornia Quadrangle, built as the grand entrance to that Exposition. In the early 1920s, architectLilian Jeannette Ricedesigned the style in the development of the town ofRancho Santa Fein San Diego County. The city ofSanta Barbaraadopted the style to give it a unified Spanish character after widespread destruction in the1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. ItsCounty Courthouseis a prime example of the style. Real estate developerOle Hansonfavored the Spanish Colonial Revival style in his founding and development ofSan Clemente, Californiain 1928. ThePasadena City Hall, as well as theSonomaandBeverly HillsCity Halls are other notable civic examples in California. Between 1922 and 1931, architect Robert H. Spurgeon constructed 32 Spanish colonial revival houses in Riverside California and many of them have been preserved.
The neocolonialcompanion building(1940s) to the colonial Mexico City palace of theayuntamiento(1720s).
style inLomas de Chapultepec, Mexico City.
The Spanish Colonial Revival of Mexico has a distinct origin from the style developed in the United States. Following theMexican Revolution, there was a wave of nationalism that emphasized national culture, including in architecture. The neocolonial style arose as a response to Europeaneclecticism(favored during thePorfiriato). The 1915 bookLa patria y la arquitectura nacionalbyFederico Mariscalwas influential in advocatingviceregalarchitecture as integral to national identity.During the government of PresidentVenustiano Carranza(serving 1917 to 1920), tax exemptions were offered to those that built houses in a colonial style.In the early 1920s there was a surge of houses built withPlateresqueelements; such asgrotesquespinnaclesandmixtilinear arches.
Secretary of EducationJos Vasconcelos(who shaped the cultural philosophy of the post-Revolution government) was an active promoter of neocolonial architecture.Traditional materials such astezontlecanteraandTalavera tileswere incorporated into neocolonial buildings.
The colonial-eraNational Palacewas significantly altered between 1926 and 1929: the addition of a third floor and changes to the facade. The modifications were done in a manner corresponding to the original style. Similarly, the colonial Mexico Citygovernment buildingwas remodeled in the 1920s and a neocolonial companion building was built in the 1940s.
The style, as developed in the United States, came full circle to its geographic point of inspiration as in the late 1930s, single-family houses were built inMexico Citys then-new upscale neighborhoods in what is known in Mexico ascolonial californiano(Californian Colonial). That is, a Mexican reinterpretation of the California interpretation of Spanish Colonial Revival.Many houses of this style can still be seen in theColonia NpolesCondesaPolancoandLomas de Chapultepecareas of Mexico City.
After colonial rule by Spain for over 300 years, and for the most part being administered under the province of New Spain (Mexico), the Philippines received Iberian and Latin-American influences in its architecture. By the time the United States conquered the Philippines, the Mission-style and Spanish Colonial Revival architecture also arrived, with inspirations from California. American architects further developed this style in the Philippines, given the Philippines Spanish heritage, but at the same time modernizing the buildings with American amenities.
The best example of the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture and California mission style is the famedManila Hoteldesigned byWilliam E. Parsonsand built in 1909. Other examples exist throughout the country such as Gota de Leche, Paco Market, and thousands more, especially in the churches and cathedrals throughout the country.
Influential Australian architects such as Emil Sodersten and Professor Leslie Wilkinson brought back styles from Italy and Spain in the early 20th century, convinced that Mediterranean styles would be well-suited for the Australian climate and lifestyle. Mediterranean style became popular in places likeSydneysuburbsManlyandBondiin the 1920s and 1930s. One variant, known as Spanish Mission or Hollywood Spanish, became popular as Australians saw films of and read in magazines about the glamorous mansions in that style that Hollywood movie stars had. Spanish mission houses began to appear in the wealthier suburbs, the most famous beingBoomerang, atElizabeth Bay.ThePlaza Theatrein Sydney is a celebrated cinema in the style.
In the 1930s, numerous houses in Spanish Revival style were built inShanghai, particularly in the formerFrench Concession. Although Shanghai was not culturally linked to the Spanish-speaking world, these buildings were probably inspired by Hollywood movies, which were highly influential in the city at the time. Local architectural magazines of the period likeThe Chinese ArchitectandThe Builderregularly printed detailed examples of the style for local builders to copy and implement.
Spanish Colonial Revival architecture shares some elements with the earlierMission Revival stylederived from thearchitecture of the California missions, andPueblo Revival stylefrom the traditionalPuebloan peoplesinNew Mexico. Both precedents were popularized in theWestern United Statesby theFred Harveyand hisAtchison, Topeka and Santa Fe RailwayDepots and Hotels. The Spanish Colonial Revival style is also influenced by theAmerican Craftsmanstyle andArts and Crafts Movement.
Spanish Colonial Revival architecture is characterized by a combination of detail from several eras ofSpanish BaroqueSpanish ColonialMoorish Revivaland MexicanChurrigueresquearchitecture, the style is marked by the prodigious use of smoothplasterstuccowallandchimneyfinishes, low-, shed, or flat roofs, andterracottaorornaments. Other characteristics typically include smallporchesorbalconiesRomanorandfenestration, woodcasementor tall,doublehung windows, and decorativeirontrim.
One of the most accomplished architects of the style wasGeorge Washington Smithwho practiced during the 1920s inSanta Barbara, California. His own residencesEl Hogar(1916, a.k.a.Casa Dracaena) andCasa del Greco(1920) brought him commissions from local society in Montecito and Santa Barbara. An example landmark house he designed is the Steedman estateCasa del HerreroinMontecito, now a registeredNational Historic Landmarkand restored historic houselandscape museum. Other examples are theJackling HouseandLobero Theatrealso inCalifornia.
Bertram GoodhueandCarleton Winslowinitiated the style as the dominant historical regional style in California; they also influencedHawaiian architecturein the 1920s. Notable in Californian architecture were the following architects:
InFloridanotable architects include:
Richard Kiehnel ofKiehnel and Elliott
Bertram Goodhues junior partner,Hardie Phillip
El Sueno designed by Kevin A. Clark
Asymmetrical shapewith cross-gablesand side wings
California Quadrangleand El Prado,Balboa ParkSan DiegoCalifornia: byBertram Goodhue, for thePanamaCalifornia Exposition(1915-15).
Casa del HerreroMontecito, California, architectsGeorge Washington SmithandLutah Maria Riggs, 1926.
The Main Quad and many buildings in the campus ofStanford University, designed byFrederick Law Olmsted, 18861891.
or Heberton House), George Washington Smith residence 1, 1916.
Santa Barbara County Courthouse, by William Mooser III, inSanta Barbara, California, completed 1929.
George Fearn HouseinMobile, Alabama, completed 1904.
Farmers BankinVero Beach, Florida, completed in 1914.
Adamson House, Taj Mahal of Tile byStiles O. Clements, inMalibu, California, completed 1930.
Alice Lynch ResidenceinLos Angeles, California, completed in 1922
Marine Corps Recruit DepotSan Diego, California, 19171930
Naval Training Center, San Diego, California, completed 1923 (Buildings 126, and Officers Quarters A-D). Other phases completed 1936 (Barracks 2730, Camp Lawrence), and 1942 (Camp Luce).
Quapaw Bathsbuilding inBathhouse RowHot Springs, Arkansas, completed in 1922.
Casa de las CampañasinHancock Parkdistrict,Los Angeles, California, completed in 1928.
C.E. Toberman Estate, by Russell & Alspagh, inHollywood, California, completed 1924.
Frank H. Upham HouseinAltadena, California, completed 1928.
Azalea Court Apartmentsin Mobile, Alabama, completed in 1928.
La Casa Nueva, Workman and Temple Family Estate, inCity of Industry, California, completed 1927.
Castillo SerrallsinPonce, Puerto Rico, completed in the 1930s.
, arch.Arthur R. KellyNewhall, California, completed in the early 1920s.
Gaylord SuitesinSan Francisco, California, completed in 1928.
Randolph Air Force Base(various structures) nearSan Antonio, Texas, designed in 1929.
Hollywood, Homewood, Alabama, a 1926 residential development inHomewood, Alabama.
El Capitan Theatre, Hollywood, built in 1928.
Death Valley Ranch, Scottys Castle, a landmark inDeath Valley National Park, which was begun in 1922 and had construction on the original design continue sporadically as late as 1943.
Scripps College, byGordon KaufmannandSumner Hunt, inClaremont, California, womens college and campus established in 1926 byEllen Browning Scripps.
Hamilton Air Force Base, inSan Francisco Bay AreanearNovato, California, completed in 1934.
Pima County CourthouseinTucson, Arizona, designed byRoy Place.
BenedictineMonastery inTucson, Arizona, also designed byRoy Place
Louis P. and Clara K. Best Residence and Auto HouseClausen & ClausenDavenport, Iowa, constructed in 1909.
Pasadena City Hall, byBakewell and Brown, inPasadena, California, completed 1927.
Hortonville Community Hall, by Robert Messmer, inHortonville, Wisconsin, built in 1912.
Thomas Jefferson HotelinBirmingham, Alabama, opened in 1929.
Belvedere ApartmentsinColumbia, Missouri, completed in 1927.
Adler HotelinSharon Springs, New York, built in 1928.
El Reno Municipal Swimming Pool Bath HouseinEl Reno, Oklahoma, completed in 1935.
Plaza del LagoinWilmette, Illinois, completed in 1928 by Henry Gage
William S. HartsLa Loma de los Vientos, a 22-room house atop a prominent hill inNewhall, California, designed by architectArthur R. Kellyand built between 1924 and 1928
Interior ofHamilton Air Force Baseheadquarters building, facility 500, built in 1934 inNovato, California
The style also spread toAustralia, where it was known as Inter-War Spanish Mission. The above example is inBondiSydney.
An example in the Sydney suburb ofBellevue Hill
Queens CollegeinNew York Citystill uses many of its original Spanish-style buildings, which were built in the early 20th century
Mediterranean Revival Style architecture
Category: Spanish Revival architecture
Spanish Colonial Revival architects
Spanish Colonial Revival architecture in California
Images of Revival styles of architecture
File: mw137h3.jpg, (364 216 px).
File: 7E319.jpg, (391 450 px). media-2.web.britannica.com. 2004-11-22
Deco Body, Deco City: Female Spectacle and Modernity in Mexico City, 19001939
. U of Nebraska Press. p.194.ISBN22
Tendencias actuales de la arquitectura mexicana
(in Spanish). USON. pp.2125.ISBN08
Modernity and the Architecture of Mexico
. University of Texas Press. p.66.ISBN32
Artifacts of Revolution: Architecture, Society, and Politics in Mexico City
Spanish Mission/Mediterranean, Manly City Council, 2006. manly.nsw.gov.au
Spanish mission style – Australian Capital Territory. Sydney Morning Herald. October 31, 2007
Mediterranean Domestic Architecture in the United States
Sharon and Sharon Springs Sharon Historical Society Google Books
. Books.google.com. 2015.ISBN57
From No Mans Land, To Plaza del Lago
. 919 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL. 60611: American References Publishing Corporation.
Mediterranean Domestic Architecture in the United States
. Marc Appleton, intro. New York: Acanthus Press, 2000.ISBN978-0-926494-13-8
. Hennessy & Ingalls, Inc., Los Angeles, CA.ISBN0-912158-89-1.
Casas to Castles: Floridas Historic Mediterranean Revival Architecture
. Schiffer, 2010.ISBN978-0-7643-3435-1
Maurice Fatio: Palm Beach Architect
. New York: Acanthus Press, 2010.ISBN978-0-926494-09-1
Spanish / Hispanic Colonial architecture
Baroque Churches of the Philippines
Colonial universities in Hispanic America
Colonial universities in the Philippines
It occurred when it was part of the Spanish kingdomCategory
HistoricismandRevivalismin Western architecture and decorative arts
Tudor RevivalBlack-and-White Revival
Spanish Colonial Revival architecture
This page was last edited on 26 May 2018, at 17:47.