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Ford 335 engine

enginefamily was a group of engines built by theFord Motor Companybetween 1969 and 1982. The 335 designation reflected Ford managements decision to produce an engine of that size (335 cubic inches) with room for expansion during its development.This engine family began production in late 1969 with a 351cuin (5.8L) engine, commonly called the 351C. It later expanded to include a 400cuin (6.6L) engine which used a taller version of the engine block, commonly referred to as a tall deck engine block, a 351cuin (5.8L) tall deck variant, called the 351M, and a 302cuin (4.9L) engine which was exclusive to Australia.

The 351C, introduced in 1969 for 1970 model year, is commonly referred to as the351 Clevelandafter the Brook Park, Ohio,Cleveland Engineplant in which most of these engines were manufactured. This plant complex included a gray iron foundry (casting plant), a stamping plant, and an engine assembly plant. As newer automobile engines began incorporating aluminum blocks, Ford closed the casting plant in May 2012.[2]

The 335 series engines were used in mid- and full-sized cars and light trucks, (351M/400 only) at times concurrently with theWindsor small-block family, the351 Windsor, in cars. These engines were also used as a replacement for theFE V8 familyin both the car and truck lines. The 335 series only outlived the FE series by a half-decade, being replaced by the more compact Windsor V8s.

The 335 series V8s wereoverhead valvepushrodV8 enginesthat used a short-skirt engine block. This family of engines incorporated elements learned on the385 big-blockseries, particularly the poly-angle combustion chambers with canted valves, and thin-wall casting technology. All 335 series V8s had free breathing, large-port canted valve heads with a rugged engine block.[3]The 335 engines use large main-bearing caps, with four-bolt attachment on some versions. All 335 series are cast with provisions for four-bolt main bearing caps to be added through modification.[3]

The first engine in the 335 series was introduced in late 1969 as the 351C. In the third quarter of 1970, the 400 was introduced to the passenger car lines. For the 1975 model year the 351M replaced the 351C in North American markets.[4]Ford of Australia built the 351C, which was very similar to the American counterpart, from November 1971 to December 1981. The 302C was produced alongside the 351C, exclusive to the Australian market.[1]

The longer stroke of the 400 required a taller deck height, and it used larger main bearings than the 351C. This was similar to the changes required to convert a302 Windsorto the351 Windsor.[4]As a result, the 335 series has both low 9.206in (234mm) and tall deck 10.297in (262mm) heights.

All 335 series engines shared the same 4.38in (111mm) bore spacing and cylinder head bolt pattern as the Windsor V8. There are a number of significant differences between the two engine families. The 335 series uses smaller, 14mm, spark plugs and a dry manifold with the radiator hose connecting vertically to the cylinder block above the cam timing chain cover. Windsors route coolant through the intake manifold via a horizontally protruding hose. The 335 has a square-shaped eight bolt rocker cover while the Windsors six-bolt is more rounded. All 335 series have a roughly two-inch extension at the front of the block which forms an integrated timing cover casting, which is lacking on Windsor family engines.

To reduce production costs, Ford eliminated one of the 335 series main oil galleys from the block casting, leaving two compared to the Windsor familys three.[5]The result was an oil system very similar to the385 series V8s, adequate for street engines but falling short in high-revolution race use without modification.[5]The two main oil galleys in the 335 series engine run along the lifter bores. Oil is fed from the filter to the number one main bearing followed by the number one cam bearing above. At the same time, it also feeds the right hand oil galley, supplying the right side lifter bank. It has four galleys that lead to each of the remaining main bearings. After the oil feeds them, it feeds each corresponding camshaft bearing above. At the rear-most main bearing, the oil goes into the second galley, which feeds the left lifter bank.[1][6]

The cylinder head design for the 335 series engines is its most definitive aspect. All were two-valve that use large ports with poly-angle or canted valves,[3]resulting in the intake and exhaust valves being at separate angles. This allowed for very large valves to be installed, while reducing the port length and minimizing sharp turns within the port.[7]The result was larger and freer flowing heads and ports than the Ford Windsor V8s, and in some cases larger than some of the Ford FE and 385 Series V8s.[8]A similar cylinder head design was used to improve breathing on theFord Boss 302 engine, after it was modified to work with the Windsor engine block.[1]Most 335 series engines used stamped rocker arms with cast fulcrums that made for a nonadjustable valve train. Only the Boss 351 and 351 HO had an adjustable valve train, using rocker arms mounted on screw-in studs and guide plates.[1][9]

The 335 series engines used different cylinder heads for two and four barrel carburetors, a2V(two venturi) and a4V(four venturi). The 2Vs had ports and valves that were significantly larger than Windsor engines,[8]while the 4Vs were larger yet. The 2Vs have proven to be better for street, while the 4Vs promote better breathing at high rpm for racing.[10]The heads used either an open, almost shallow hemispherical combustion chamber or a closed quench type. The closed chamber heads enclose the valves more closely, reducing combustion chamber volume, but both designs have the same thermal efficiency and resistance to detonation.[7]The closed combustion chamber promotes better swirling of incoming air fuel mixture, giving it a low-rpm torque advantage, and requires less machining to obtain high compression ratios.[7]However, the open chamber heads exhibit better emissions characteristics.[1]

Production of the351 WindsorV8 engine began for the 1970 model year in the Windsor Engine Plant 1. Ford sales and marketing forecast that the demand for this engine would exceed the plants production capability, and it was decided the additional production would begin at the Cleveland engine plant. At this time, it was also decided to upgrade the engine to a higher-specification power plant.[1]Two cylinder-head designs were developed to improve the 351W head. One cylinder head used the same basic design as the 351W, but with larger ports and valves; the other had canted intake and exhaust valves, similar to the Ford 385 Series V8. Sales, marketing, and product planning favored the canted valve design, as it was viewed as more innovative.[1]

Other changes to the engine were related to ease of manufacture and improved reliability. This led to elimination of coolant flowing through the intake manifold to prevent unnecessary heat transfer. To perform this change, the front of the engine block was extended to include provisions for the coolant to flow through a cross over in the block. This extension also acted as an integrated timing chain housing. The timing chain housing was covered with flat steel that was easier to seal than the typical large timing chain cover used on other Ford V8s.[1]These changes resulted in a bigger and heavier engine block than the Windsor V8s. The 351 Cleveland was not an all-new design, but a development of the 351W into a higher-performance variation.[1]

The351 Clevelandwas introduced in 1969 for the 1970 model year. Its actual displacement was 351.9 cubic inches (5,766cc). A 4V performance version and a 2V version were built. The 351C-4V was marketed as a high-performance engine, featuring large valves and ports and a closed quench combustion chamber. Later versions of the 351C with 4V heads continued to use the large ports and valves, but switched to open chamber heads in an effort to reduce engine emissions. The 351C-2V was not marketed as a high-performance engine. It used the 2V cylinder heads with smaller valves, smaller ports, and open combustion chambers to produce a more economical engine that produced greater low-rpm torque.[3]Only the Q-code 351 Cobra Jet (19711974), R-code Boss 351 (1971), and R-code 351 HO (1972) versions have four-bolt main bearing caps.[3]

The H-code 351 Cleveland engines are two-barrel carburetor 351Cs with lower compression. Compression ratio ranged from 9.5:1 in 1970 to 8.0:1 in 1973 and 1974 and all years ran on regular-grade fuel. All H-code 351s were equipped with a cast-iron crankshaft, two-bolt main bearing caps, forged-steel connecting rods, cast-aluminum pistons, nonadjustable valvetrain, and cast-iron intake and exhaust manifolds.[4]All H-code 351 Cleveland engines used the 2V heads with smaller ports and had open combustion chambers.[1]These engines were produced from 1970 through 1974 and were used on a variety of Ford models, from pony car to full-sized.[4]The351Wwith a 2V carburetor was also produced during this time with the same horsepower rating, but Ford used the H-code to describe both engines.[11]

The M-code was a high-compression, high-performance variation of the 351C, produced in 1970 and 1971. The M-code engines used the large-port 4V heads with a closed quench combustion chamber and large valves.[4]These engines also included cast-aluminum flat-top pistons, stiffer valve springs, a high-performance hydraulic camshaft, and a squareboreAutolite 4300-Acarburetor.[1]The 1970 engines were 11.0:1 compression and produced 300bhp (224kW; 304PS) at 5400 rpm, while 1971 versions had a slightly lower compression ratio of 10.7:1, and produced 285bhp (213kW; 289PS) at 5400 rpm.[4]The M-code 351C required premium fuel and was available in the 1970-71Ford TorinoMercury MontegoFord Mustang, andMercury Cougar.[11][12]

The Boss 351 was the most potent high-performance variant of the 351C available only in the 1971 Boss 351 Mustang. Rated at 330 bhp (246kW), it was fitted with a four-barrelAutolite model 4300-Dspreadbore carburetor, an aluminum intake manifold, solid lifters, dual-point distributor, a six-quart oil pan, and cast-aluminum valve covers.[1][13]Forgeddomedpistonsgave an 11.3:1 nominal (11.1:1 advertised)compression ratiowhich made premium fuel necessary.[12][14]It had four-bolt main bearing caps selected for hardness and a premium cast-ironcrankshaftselected for hardness (90%nodularity).[1]Thecylinder headwas modified for better airflow, used screw-in studs with adjustable rocker arms, and except for the water passages were basically the same heads used on theBoss 302.[4]The valvetrain used hardened and ground push rods with guide plates, and single grove-hardened valve split locks.[1]The forgedconnecting rodswere shot-peened andmagnafluxedfor strength, and used improved durability 180,000 PSI 3/8-inch nuts and bolts.[1]The R-code Boss 351 was only installed in the 1971 Boss 351 Mustang, and it came equipped with Ram Air induction. Ford manufactured 1,806 Boss 351 Mustangs in 1971, 591 of which are registered and accounted for on the Boss 351 Registry site.[15]

The January 2010 issue ofHot Rodreported a project in which a Boss 351 was assembled to the exact internal specifications of an original motor, but fitted with open, long tube, 1-3/4-inch Hooker headers (vs. the stock cast-iron manifolds), a facility water pump, a 750 Holley Street HP-series carburetor (vs. the stock 715 CFM Autolite unit), and minus the factory air filter assembly, engine accessories, or factory exhaust system. In that mildly modified state, it produced 383hp (286kW) gross at 6,100 rpm, and 391lb⋅ft (530N⋅m) torque (gross) at 4,000 rpm.[16]A measurement of SAE net horsepower would be significantly lower, and represents a more realistic as-installed configuration with all engine accessories, air cleaner assembly, and automobile exhaust system.

The 351C HO R-code had a number of changes to help meet emission standards for 1972 compared to the 1971 Boss 351 R-Code. The camshaft had less duration, but more valve lift, while the mechanical lifters remained unchanged.[1]The forged pistons were changed to flat-top style and the heads to open chamber heads, but retained the same large ports, valves, and adjustable valve train used in 1971.[4]This resulted in a compression ratio decreased to 9.2:1 while the cleaner-burning open-chamber heads helped meet the new emissions regulations.[1]The Ram Air option was no longer available. The engine otherwise remained unchanged from 1971. This engine produced 275hp (205kW) using the more realistic SAE net system and was only available in the 1972 Ford Mustang.[4]

The Q-code 351 Cobra-Jet (also called 351-CJ, 351-4V) was produced from May 1971 through the 1974 model year. It was a lower-compression design that included open-chamber 4V heads.[4]The open-chamber heads exhibited superior emissions characteristics and were required to meet the more stringent emissions standards for 1972 and beyond.[1]The 351 CJ high-performance engine included a different intake manifold, high-lift, long-duration camshaft with hydraulic valve lifters, different valve springs and dampers, a 750-CFM spread-bore 4300-D Motorcraft carburetor, dual-point distributor (with four-speed manual transmissions only), and four-bolt main bearing caps. These engines also featured induction-hardened exhaust seats for use with low-lead and unleaded gasoline.[4]This engine was different from the 1970-71 M-code 351C having a more aggressive camshaft, a spread-bore carburetor, a four-bolt block[14]and the lower compression allowed regular fuel to be used.[17]It was rated at 280bhp (209kW; 284PS) for all 1971 applications. For the 1972 model year, the only change to the engine was a retarding the camshaft events by 4.[1]The engine was rated at 266hp (198kW) (SAE net) for 1972 when installed in the Mustang, and 248hp (185kW) in the Torino and Montego.[4]An increase in the combustion chamber size and the use of smaller valves occurred in 1973,[1]which reduced horsepower to 246hp (183kW) for the four-barrel for the intermediate Fords, though it still retained the higher 266hp (198kW) rating in the Mustang.[4]The 351 CJ (now referred to as the 351 4V) was rated at 255hp (190kW) in 1974 and was only installed in theFord Ranchero, Ford Torino, Mercury Montego, and Mercury Cougar.[13]

Production of the 351C ended at the end of the 1974 model year. The engine was replaced by the351Mfor the 1975 model year. This new variation used the same bore and stroke dimensions of the 351C, but used the tall deck block from the 400 V8 engine.

By 1970 the 390V8 FE enginewas becoming outdated. With pending emission requirements, a more modern replacement was needed. Although thewas used to replace the larger displacement 428V8 FE engine, this engine family had nothing comparable in size to the 390 V8. For the 1971 model year, Ford introduced the 400 V8 engine as a replacement for the 390 V8.[4][19]Ford billed the 400 as the 351Cs big brother. It was designed to provide brisk acceleration in medium to heavy weight vehicles in an engine package that was smaller and lighter than the FE V8 Engines and the 385 Series Ford V8s.[20]

The Ford400engine was based on the 351 Cleveland. It had a half-inch (12.7mm) longer stroke than the 351 Cleveland, making it the longest-stroke Fordpushrod V8 engine. The 400 hadsquareproportions, with a 4.0in (102mm) bore and stroke. Ford called the engine 400cuin but it actuallydisplaced402cuin (6.6L), The longer stroke required Ford to increase the block deck height to 10.297inches compared to the 351Cs 9.206inches.[4]As a result, the 400 used longer (6.580 inch) connecting rods than the 351C (5.778 inch), but it retained the same connecting rod-to-stroke (1.65:1) ratio as the 351C.[1]The 400 featured larger 3.00inch main-bearing journals, the same size as those used in the 351 Windsor, but rod journals were the same size as the 351C.[4]The cylinder heads for the 400 were the same as those used on the 351C-2V, having the open combustion chamber with smaller 2V sized ports and valves. The 400 was only produced with a 2-barrel carburetor; there were never any factory 4-barrel versions built. All had a cast-iron intake manifold, and the smaller port 2V cylinder heads.[4][21]

The 400 was designed as a high torque, low RPM engine that was a smaller, more efficient and lighter alternative for the bigFord 385 engines, the 429 and 460, for use in Fords medium and large size cars. Weighing just 80% of a similar big-block,[22]it was originally available in FordsCustomGalaxieandLTDlines, and inMarquis, andBroughamfor the 1971 model year. For 1972, it was also available in theFord TorinoMercury Montegoand its variations through 1979. By the late 1970s it was also available in theFord ThunderbirdFord F-series pickup trucks, the, andMark V.

Unlike the 351C, almost all 400 blocks used the largebellhousingbolt pattern used by the385 familybig-block and were typically equipped with the higher torque-capacityC6 transmission. There were a small number of 400 block castings produced in 1973 with the dual bellhousing patterns. It had the large bellhousing and the small bellhousing bolt pattern used by theWindsor V8 familyand the 351C, though it was not necessarily drilled for both. These particular blocks have been dubbed the 400 FMX by enthusiasts, though were never officially referenced as such by Ford.[23]Most 400s also had unique engine mount bolt pattern but these 400 FMX blocks had provisions for both 351C-style and 400/351M engine mounts.[24]For 1972, the compression was reduced through the use of dished pistons. The compression reduced again for 1973 and a new timing set retarded the camshaft timing 6 to aid with reducing emissions.[21]Changes to the cylinder heads for 1975 to add the Thermactor emission system caused the exhaust port to be more restrictive than the earlier 1971-74 heads.[21]The 400 was retuned by Ford in 1975 to useunleaded gasolinewith the addition of catalytic converters to the exhaust system.

The development of the 400 V8 led to a significant design flaw that remained with the engine throughout its production life. With a longer stroke, the compression ratio became excessively high with the 351-2V heads and flat top pistons. Ford engineers reduced the compression ratio by using a piston with a compression height that was too short and this led to an excessive deck clearance of 0.067 compared to a 351-2V at 0.035 .[20][25]In 1971, this method of reducing compression was sufficient due to the higher octane leaded fuels. However, once lower octane unleaded fuels became used the excessive deck clearance lead to problems with detonation. For 1975, Ford dealt with this problem by decreasing the compression ratio further with a larger 15cc piston dish and reducing ignition timing. However the 400 V8 obtained a reputation for being prone to detonation.[20]Although Ford did not make a piston to correct this, TMeyer Inc worked withKeith Blackpistons to make a 400 piston that increases the compression ratio and gives the piston a zero deck deck clearance.[26]

When the 351 Cleveland was discontinued after the 1974 model year, Ford needed another engine in that size range, since production of the351 Windsorwas not sufficient. Ford took the 400 engines tall-deck block and de-stroked it with a shorter 3.5in (89mm) stroke crankshaft to produce a 351 cubic inch (5.8 L) engine. This crankshaft was not the same as a 351C, in that it used the larger 3.0in (76mm) main bearing journals of the 400 V8.[4]To compensate for the shorter stroke thepistonsfor the 351M have a taller compression height, so that it could use the same connecting rods as the 400. The result of the 351M using the longer 400 connecting rod was a higher connecting rod-to-stroke ratio of 1.88:1 than the 351C and 400s of 1.65:1.[1]Other than pistons and crankshaft the 351M shared all of its major components with the 400, and it also used the large385 Seriesstyle bellhousing. The 351M was only ever equipped with a 2-barrel carburetor and open chamber small port 2V cylinder heads.[21]

351M production began for the 1975 model year and blocks were cast in the Michigan Casting Center or the Cleveland Foundry. The 351M, was the last pushrod V8 block designed by Ford.[27]

For the 1977 model year, Ford replaced itsFEbig-block 360 and 390 engines in its light truck line with its new 351M and 400 engines. For light-truck use, a manual transmission could be ordered for the first time with these engines. As a result, the block was strengthened in the main bearing supports, in particular the 3 support to better handle the loads imparted by the clutch. The truck engines had unique parts including pistons for different compression ratios from the car engines, truck specific intake and exhaust manifolds, camshaft with more lift, and timing set that did not retard the camshaft timing. The strengthened engine block was introduced to the Ford cars for the 1978 model year.[20]

The 400 V8s for the model years 197172 were either cast in the Dearborn Iron Foundry or the Cleveland Foundry. Those built for model years 197379 were either cast in the Cleveland Foundry or the Michigan Casting Center.[21]The 351M introduced in 1975 shared the same block as the 400. The 351M and 400 blocks cast at the Michigan Casting Center prior to March 2, 1977 experienced water jacket cracking problems above the lifter bores. The cracking was caused by an internal coring problem when the blocks were cast. The result was horizontal cracks approximately 1 above the lifter bore.[25]After March 2, 1977 the blocks cast at Michigan Casting Center did not have problems with cracking.

There exists debate as to what Ford meant by the M designation of the 351M. Some claim the M stands for Modified – being modified from a 400-V8 with a shortened stroke – though others claim that the M refers to the Michigan Casting Center, where the 351M began production. Some say that the M designation has no official meaning, and that it was just Fords way of distinguishing the 351M from the 351C and 351W.[28]

Likewise, Fords use of the 400 block in the creation of the 351M engine has resulted in the 400 mistakenly being referred to as the 400M or 400 Modified. This is despite the 400 having been the design basis from which the modified 351M was derived and it was in production several years before Ford used the M designation. Further confusion arises from Ford printing 351M/400 on the emission stickers for the engine. The 351M/400 referenced the engine family, and some confused this with the engine name. This sticker also listed the engine displacement below the engine family. Fords official name for the 400 V8 contains no additional designations – the proper nomenclature is simply 400.

The 351M and 400 were last offered in a Ford passenger car in 1979. They remained available in Ford light-trucks until 1982. Reduced demand for larger engines due to tighteningCAFEregulations led to the abandonment of the 351M/400 and the Cleveland production line. By 1980, mid-sized V8s had disappeared from the option list for almost all Ford cars. Only the full-sizePantherplatform Fords had anything larger than 302 ci available, and this need was filled with the 351W. With low demand for engines in the size range of the 351M/400, the 335-series V8s no longer had a need to be produced.

In addition, there were difficulties adapting the M-block to the second generation of emissions controls. Unlike previous Ford engines, Thermactor and exhaust gas recirculation features had already been built into the 351M and 400 engine, rendering adaptation to electronic feedback fuel/air systems difficult.[29]One requirement of the second-generation equipment was an oxygen (O2) sensor in the exhaust, which had to be placed before the Thermactor air was added. Since Thermactor air was injected right into the blocks exhaust ports in the M-block, there was nowhere for the O2sensor to go.

During the 1969 Model year, Ford of Australia imported approximately 17,000302 Windsorand351 WindsorV8s. However, the 351 Windsor was phased out for 1970 in favor of the newer 351 Cleveland. The 351 Cleveland engines continued to be imported from the US along with the 302 Windsor V8. Both the low-performance 351C-2V and the high performance 351C-4V were imported with the vast majority of the engines being the 351C-2V. Like the US engines, the 4V versions used the closed quench chambered heads and used the larger ports on the cylinder heads.[1]

In early 1970 Ford of Australia began to manufacture the 335-series V8 locally. They produced both the 351C-2V and 351C-4V engine along with a short stroke version displacing 302 cubic inches. These new locally built engines replaced the previously imported 302 Windsor and 351C from the USA. Initially, the cylinder blocks were still imported from the USA, while the remaining parts were manufactured in Australia at the Geelong Ford Foundry. In 1973, Ford of Australia received word of the fact the Ford of USA was stopping production of the 351 Cleveland engine after the 1974 model year. As a result, Ford of Australia placed an order for approximately 60,000 engine blocks to act as a supply until Geelong could start producing its own engine blocks. In 1975 Geelong began production of its own engine blocks which it continued until December 1981. All engine blocks produced in Australia were the short deck 9.206 engine block. The last Australian Ford to receive a Cleveland V8 engine was a Ford XE FairmontGhiaESP sedan,Vehicle Identification NumberJG32AR33633K built on 25 November 1982.[1]Ford Australia continued to make remnant stock of the 351C available in Bronco and F-series vehicles until August 1985. Australian-built 351 engines were also used byDe Tomasoin Italy for thePanteraLongchamp, andDeauvillecars after American supplies had come to an end. These engines were tuned in Switzerland and were available with a range of outputs up to 360PS (265kW; 355hp).[30]

In November 1971, Ford of Australia began to manufacture the 302cuin (4.9L) Cleveland engine at the Geelong engine plant alongside of the 351C. The engine remained in production until 1982 and was only produced in Australia. The 302C was considered an economy V8 and it is estimated that only ten percent of Australian Cleveland V8 production was the 302C.[1]The 302C was created by using the 351C block with a crankshaft that had a 3.0in (76mm) stroke while it shared the 2.75 main journal size of the 351C. The 302C had a 6.020in (152.91mm) connecting rod to allow it to share the same piston as the 351C. This resulted in a connecting rod-to-stroke ratio of 2.01:1, the least desirable of any of the 335 series V8s.[1]The 302C used a unique cylinder head compared to the Australian 351C to ensure an adequate compression ratio. The 302C had used the quench closed combustion chamber with a volume of 56.459.4 cc, the smallest of any 335 series engine cylinder head. This head used the small 2V ports and valves, making it the only 335 series head with the closed chambers and small 2V ports.[3]

The combination of the closed chamber heads with the small 2V ports has caused the 302C head to be a bolt-on-performance upgrade for other 335 series V8s. Having the smallest combustion chamber of the 335 series V8s, these cylinder heads will easily boost the static compression ratio of any other 335 series V8. In addition, the small ports used on these head are more efficient for a street performance engine, than the large port 4V heads that tend to favour performance only at higher engine speeds.[31]

Initially, the 351C was imported to Australia from the US. Both the 351-2V and 351-4V were imported and both were in all respects the same as the American market counterparts. In November 1971, Ford of Australia began producing its own 351C engines, ending the importation of American engines. At the outset, Australia only produced a 351-2V engine, but in March 1972 Ford of Australia began to offer a new 351-4V engine with a 4-barrel carburetor. Australia only produced one style of cylinder head for the 351 engines, a 2V head with small ports and open chamber cylinder heads. As a result, the Australian 351-4V engines used the 2V cylinder head. This required a unique 4V intake manifold with the smaller 2V ports, unlike the American 351-4V intake manifold which used the large ports.[1]No 351C built in Australia used the large port cylinder heads or closed chamber combustion chambers like the US build 351C-4V engines.

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